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2018年考研英语(一)​真题

来源:www.sysuyz.com 作者:逸仙中大考研网 浏览:661 次 发布时间:2017/12/24

2018年考研已经结束,考完之后的第一件事就是了解自己考得怎样,错了几题,预估一下自己的考研情况,有利于后期的调剂与复试的准备工作。下面,逸仙中大考研www.sysuyz.com为各位考生整理发布2018考研英语(一)真题

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Section I Use of English

Directions

Read the following text. Choose the best word sfor each numbered blank and mark ABC or D on the ANSWER SHEET. 10 points

Trust is a tricky business. On the one handit‘s a necessary condition 1 many worthwhile thingschild carefriendshipsetc. On the other handputting your 2in the wrong place often carries a high 3.

4why do we trust at allWellbecause it feels good. 5 people place their trust in an individual or an institutiontheir brains release oxytocina hormone that 6 pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to 7 with one another. Scientists have found that exposure 8 this hormone puts us in a trusting 9In a Swiss studyresearchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjectsthose subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their 10 who inhaled something else.

11 for uswe also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may 12 us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate 13 a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each 14 to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask“What’s in here” before looking into the containersmilingand exclaiming“Wow” Each subject was then invited to look 15. Half of them found a toythe other half 16 the container was empty-and realized the tester had 17 them.

Among the children who had not been trickedthe majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skilldemonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 19only five of the 30 children paired with the “20”tester participated in a follow-up activity.

1. [A] on [B] like [C] for [D] from

2. [A] faith [B] concern [C] attention [D] interest

3. [A] benefit [B] debt [C] hope [D] price

4. [A] Therefore [B] Then [C] Instead [D] Again

5. [A]Until [B] Unless [C] Although [D] When

6. [A] selects [B] produces [C] applies [D] maintains

7. [A] consult [B] compete [C] connect [D] compare

8. [A] at [B] by [C]of [D]to

9. [A] context [B] mood [C] period [D] circle

10.[A] counterparts [B] substitutes [C] colleagues [D]supporters

11.[A] Funny [B] Lucky [C] Odd [D] Ironic

12.[A] monitor [B] protect [C] surprise [D] delight

13.[A] between [B] within [C] toward [D] over

14.[A] transferred [B] added [C] introduced [D] entrusted

15.[A] out [B] back [C] around [D] inside

16.[A] discovered [B] proved [C] insisted [D] .remembered

17.[A] betrayed [B]wronged [C] fooled [D] mocked

18.[A] forced [B] willing [C] hesitant [D] entitled

19.[A] In contrast [B] As a result [C] On the whole [D] For instance

20.[A] inflexible [B] incapable [C] unreliable [D] unsuitable

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing ABC or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. 40 points

Text 1

Among the annoying challenges facing the middle class is one that will probably go unmentioned in the next presidential campaignWhat happens when the robots come for their jobs

Don‘t dismiss that possibility entirely. About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk of being automatedaccording to a University of Oxford studywith the middle class disproportionately squeezed. Lower-income jobs like gardening or day care don’t appeal to robots. But many middle-class occupations-truckingfinancial advicesoftware engineering — have aroused their interestor soon will. The rich own the robotsso they will be fine.

This isn‘t to be alarmist. Optimists point out that technological upheaval has benefited workers in the past. The Industrial Revolution didn’t go so well for Luddites whose jobs were displaced by mechanized loomsbut it eventually raised living standards and created more jobs than it destroyed. Likewiseautomation should eventually boost productivitystimulate demand by driving down pricesand free workers from hardboring work. But in the medium termmiddle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting.

The first stepas Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue in The Second Machine Ageshould be rethinking education and job training. Curriculums —from grammar school to college- should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication. Vocational schools should do a better job of fostering problem-solving skills and helping students work alongside robots. Online education can supplement the traditional kind. It could make extra training and instruction affordable. Professionals trying to acquire new skills will be able to do so without going into debt.

The challenge of coping with automation underlines the need for the U.S. to revive its fading business dynamismStarting new companies must be made easier. In previous eras of drastic technological changeentrepreneurs smoothed the transition by dreaming up ways to combine labor and machines. The best uses of 3D printers and virtual reality haven‘t been invented yet. The U.S. needs the new companies that will invent them.

Finallybecause automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor incometaxes and the safety net will have to be rethought. Taxes on low-wage labor need to be cutand wage subsidies such as the earned income tax credit should be expandedThis would boost incomesencourage workreward companies for job creationand reduce inequality.

Technology will improve society in ways big and small over the next few yearsyet this will be little comfort to those who find their lives and careers upended by automation. Destroying the machines that are coming for our jobs would be nuts. But policies to help workers adapt will be indispensable.

21.Who will be most threatened by automation

[A] Leading politicians.

[B]Low-wage laborers.

[C]Robot owners.

[D]Middle-class workers.

22 .Which of the following best represent the author’s view

[A] Worries about automation are in fact groundless.

[B]Optimists‘ opinions on new tech find little support.

[C]Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

[D]Negative consequences of new tech can be avoided

23.Education in the age of automation should put more emphasis on

[A] creative potential.

[B]job-hunting skills.

[C]individual needs.

[D]cooperative spirit.

24.The author suggests that tax policies be aimed at

[A] encouraging the development of automation.

[B]increasing the return on capital investment.

[C]easing the hostility between rich and poor.

[D]preventing the income gap from widening.

25.In this textthe author presents a problem with

[A] opposing views on it.

[B]possible solutions to it.

[C]its alarming impacts.

[D]its major variations.

Text 2

A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other sourceNot a president’s social media platform.

Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as distrust has risen toward all mediapeople may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016 presidential campaignnearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake newsaccording to the University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust” to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young people assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and actively seeking out opposing viewpoints” the survey concluded.

Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in AustraliaBritainand the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that young people’s reliance on social media led to greater political engagement.

Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error” more so than made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via social media. In other wordsthe choice to share news on social media may be the heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibility in counteracting this problem” says Roxanne Stoneeditor in chief at Barna Group.

So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting presidentthey reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to share on social media.

26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2many young Americans cast doubts on

[A] the justification of the news-filtering practice.

[B] people’s preference for social media platforms.

[C] the administrations ability to handle information.

[D] social media was a reliable source of news.

27. The phrase “beer up”Line 2Para. 2is closest in meaning to

[A] sharpen

[B] define

[C] boast

[D] share

28. According to the knight foundation surveyyoung people

[A] tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.

[B] verify news by referring to diverse resources.

[C] have s strong sense of responsibility.

[D] like to exchange views on “distributed trust”

29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem is

[A] readers outdated values.

[B] journalists’ biased reporting

[C] readers’ misinterpretation

[D] journalists’ made-up stories.

30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text

[A] A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

[B] A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend

[C] The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.

[D] The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.

Text 3

Any fair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain‘s National Health Service NHSand DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both sides mean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence AIcompanies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare is very greatbut it could also lead to further concentration of power in the tech giants. It Is against that background that the information commissionerElizabeth Denhamhas issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHSwhich handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients In 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy.

DeepMind has almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further arrangements- and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be carefully scrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked of patients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons about informed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in this case and not even the most important. Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blame on the NHS trustsince under existing law it “controlled” the data and DeepMind merely “processed“ it. But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregationnot the mere possession of bitsthat gives the data value.

The great question is who should benefit from the analysis of all the data that our lives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to an individual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the surveillance economy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only when it is compared with the data of countless millions more.

The use of privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels slightly maladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not enough to say that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and save lives. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the scale that dugs now canbig data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has done. We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may turn out to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham‘s report is a welcome start.

31.Wha is true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind

[A] It caused conflicts among tech giants.

[B] It failed to pay due attention to patient’s rights.

[C] It fell short of the latter‘s expectations

[D] It put both sides into a dangerous situation.

32. The NHS trust responded to Denham‘s verdict with

[A] empty promises.

[B] tough resistance.

[C] necessary adjustments.

[D] sincere apologies.

33.The author argues in Paragraph 2 that

[A] privacy protection must be secured at all costs.

[B] leaking patients‘ data is worse than selling it.

[C] making profits from patients‘ data is illegal.

[D] the value of data comes from the processing of it

34.According to the last paragraphthe real worry arising from this deal is

[A] the vicious rivalry among big pharmas.

[B] the ineffective enforcement of privacy law.

[C] the uncontrolled use of new software.

[D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.

35.The author‘s attitude toward the application of AI to healthcare is

[A] ambiguous.

[B] cautious.

[C] appreciative.

[D] contemptuous.

Text 4

The U.S. Postal Service USPScontinues to bleed red ink. It reported a net loss of $5.6 billion for fiscal 2016the 10th straight year its expenses have exceeded revenue. Meanwhileit has more than $120 billion in unfunded liabilitiesmostly for employee health and retirement costs. There are many bankruptcies. Fundamentallythe USPS is in a historic squeeze between technological change that has permanently decreased demand for its bread-and-butter productfirst-class mailand a regulatory structure that denies management the flexibility to adjust its operations to the new reality

And interest groups ranging from postal unions to greeting-card makers exert self-interested pressure on the USPS’s ultimate overseer-Congress-insisting that whatever else happens to the Postal Serviceaspects of the status quo they depend on get protected. This is why repeated attempts at reform legislation have failed in recent yearsleaving the Postal Service unable to pay its bills except by deferring vital modernization.

Now comes word that everyone involved---DemocratsRepublicansthe Postal Servicethe unions and the system‘s heaviest users—has finally agreed on a plan to fix the system. Legislation is moving through the House that would save USPS an estimated $28.6 billion over five yearswhich could help pay for new vehiclesamong other survival measures. Most of the money would come from a penny-per-letter permanent rate increase and from shifting postal retirees into Medicare. The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health carethus addressing a long-standing complaint by the USPS and its union.

If it clears the Housethis measure would still have to get through the Senate – where someone is bound to point out that it amounts to the barebare minimum necessary to keep the Postal Service afloatnot comprehensive reform. There’s no change to collective bargaining at the USPSa major omission considering that personnel accounts for 80 percent of the agency’s costs. Also missing is any discussion of eliminating Saturday letter delivery. That common-sense change enjoys wide public support and would save the USPS $2 billion per year. But postal special-interest groups seem to have killed itat least in the House. The emerging consensus around the bill is a sign that legislators are getting frightened about a politically embarrassing short-term collapse at the USPS. It is nothowevera sign that they’re getting serious about transforming the postal system for the 21st century.

36.The financial problem with the USPS is caused partly by

[A]. its unbalanced budget.

[B] .its rigid management.

[C] .the cost for technical upgrading.

[D]. the withdrawal of bank support.

37. According to Paragraph 2the USPS fails to modernize itself due to

[A]. the interference from interest groups.

[B] .the inadequate funding from Congress.

[C] .the shrinking demand for postal service.

[D] .the incompetence of postal unions.

38.The long-standing complaint by the USPS and its unions can be addressed by

[A] .removing its burden of retiree health care.

[B] .making more investment in new vehicles.

[C] .adopting a new rate-increase mechanism.

[D]. attracting more first-class mail users.

39.In the last paragraphthe author seems to view legislators with

[A] respect.

[B] tolerance.

[C] discontent.

[D] gratitude.

40.Which of the following would be the best title for the text

[A] .The USPS Starts to Miss Its Good Old Days

[B] .The Postal ServiceKeep Away from My Cheese

[C] .The USPSChronic Illness Requires a Quick Cure

[D] .The Postal Service Needs More than a Band-Aid

Part B

Directions

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. 10 points

A. In December of 1869Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commission was also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. To the horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Building to be erected on the other side of the White Housethe elaborate French Second Empire style design by Alfred Mullett was selectedand construction of a building to house all three departments began in June of 1871.

B. Completed in 1875the State Department‘s south wing was the first to be occupiedwith its elegant four-story library completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Roomand Secretary’s office decorated with carved woodOriental rugsand stenciled wall patterns. The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879where elaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marquetry floors decorated the office of the Secretary.

C. The StateWarand Navy Buildingas it was originally knownhoused the three Executive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating and conducting the nation‘s foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century-the period when the United States emerged as an international power. The building has housed some of the nation’s most significant diplomats and politicians and has been the scene of many historic events.

D. Many of the most celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the EEOB‘s granite walls. Theodore and Franklin D. RooseveltWilliam Howard TaftDwight D. EisenhowerLyndon B. JohnsonGerald Fordand George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming president. It has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy21 Secretaries of Warand 24 Secretaries of State. Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met here with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

E. The Eisenhower Executive Office Building EEOBcommands a unique position in both the national history and the architectural heritage of the United States. Designed by Supervising Architect of the TreasuryAlfred B. Mullettit was built from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the StateWarand Navy Departmentsand is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empire architecture in the country.

F. Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When the EEOB was finishedit was the largest office building in Washingtonwith nearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interior detail is of cast iron or plasterthe use of wood was minimized to insure fire safety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4000 individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and two stained glass rotundas.

G. The history of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The first executive offices were constructed between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires including those set by the British in 1814and overcrowded conditions led to the construction of the existing Treasury Building. In 1866the construction of the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of the State Department building.

41. à Cà42. à 43. à F à 44 à 45.

Part C

Directions

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. 10 points

Shakespeare’s life time was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity and achievement in the drama. By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious dramaand the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy. These new forms were at first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateursbut in Englandas everywhere else in western Europethe growth of a class of professional actors was threatening to make the drama popularwhether it should be new or oldclassical or medievalliterary or farcical. Courtschool organizations of amateursand the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespread desire for dramatic entertainmentand 47no boy who went a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

When Shakespeare was twelve years oldthe first public playhouse was built in London. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Plays aiming at literary distinction were written for school or courtor for the choir boys of St. Paul’s and the royal chapelwhohowevergave plays in public as well as at court.48but the professional companies prospered in their permanent theatersand university men with literature ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood. By the time Shakespeare was twenty-fiveLylyPeeleand Greene had made comedies that were at once popular and literaryKyd had written a tragedy that crowded the pitand Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the common stage - where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. 49A native literary drama had been createdits alliance with the public playhouses establishedand at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

The development of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is of exceptional interest to students of literary historyfor in this brief period we may trace the beginninggrowthblossomingand decay of many kinds of playsand of many great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number of plays producedas well as by the number of dramatists writing at the same time for this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. 50To realize how great was the dramatic activitywe must remember further that hosts of plays have been lostand that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

Section III Writing

Part A

51. Directions

Write an email to all international experts on campus inviting them to attend the graduation ceremony. In your email you should include timeplace and other relevant information about the ceremony.

You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSEWER SHEET

Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead. 10 points

Part B

52. Directions

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essayyou should


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